The European and US National Pressure Ulcer Advisory panels (EPUAP and NPUAP), along with the Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance (PPPIA) are proud to announce the latest release of their International Pressure Ulcer Guidelines.

Published September, 2014 and covering the treatment and prevention of pressure ulcers, print copies of both the full clinical practice guidelines and the quick reference guide are available for purchase from our Pressure Ulcer Guidelines shop.

Shoppers in the European region can enter the following code for a regional discount: EPUAP.

A digital copy of the 2014 Edition of the Quick Reference Guide is available to download for free from the EPUAP:
NPUAP-EPUAP-PPPIA Pressure Ulcer Treatment & Prevention, 2014 Quick Reference Guide (Updated 16/10/14)

Images From The Guidelines Launch Event

About Us

In 2009, the EPUAP and NPUAP published “Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers: Clinical Practice Guideline”, including the Quick Reference Guide.

The NPUAP, EPUAP and PPPIA have worked in collaboration to develop a new pressure ulcer prevention and treatment clinical guideline. The intent of the collaboration is to advance international consensus in pressure ulcer prevention and management.


This guideline is the result of a collaborative effort among the NPUAP, EPUAP and PPPIA. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. A rigorous scientific methodology was used to appraise available research and make evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. Draft guidelines were made available to 986 invited stakeholder individuals and organizations/societies and stakeholder feedback was considered by the guideline developers. In the final development process, the guideline development team used a consensus voting process (GRADE) to assign strengths of recommendation. Strength of recommendations indicate the extent to which one can be confident that adherence to a recommendation will do more harm than good, and are indented to assist the health professional to prioritize interventions. The guideline includes 575 explicit recommendations and/or research summaries for the following pressure ulcer topics: etiology; prevalence and incidence; risk assessment; skin and tissue assessment; preventive skin care; prophylactic dressings; microclimate control; fabrics and textiles; nutrition; repositioning and early mobilization; support surfaces; medical device related pressure ulcers; pressure ulcer classification; wound assessment; monitoring of healing; pain assessment and treatment; cleansing; debridement; wound dressings (including growth factors and biological wound dressings); assessment and treatment of infection and biofilms; biophysical agents (e.g. electrical stimulation, negative pressure wound therapy, electromagnetic field treatment); and surgery.

Additional sections address the specific needs of special populations including bariatric individuals, critically ill individuals, older adults, pediatric individuals, individuals in palliative care and individuals in the operating room setting. The guideline includes sections to assist in implementing the guideline within organizations, including quality improvement strategies, quality indicators, health professional education and recommendations to assist patient consumers.

The guideline also includes the NPUAP/EPUAP International Pressure Ulcer Classification system, complete with full Category/Stage descriptions and illustrative photography.

International Pressure Ulcer Guidelines, Corporate Sponsors:

  • Mölnlycke Health Care
  • Smith & Nephew
  • ArjoHuntleigh, Getinge Group
  • Sage Products
  • EHOB: prevention - treatment - solutions
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